He was the son of Humphrey III of Toron and Stephanie of Milly&sup6;, and grandson of Humphrey II, former constable of Jerusalem. He was also a stepson of Raynald of Chatillon, who married Stephanie when Humphrey III died. Humphrey's sister Isabella was married to Rupen III of Armenia&sup7;. The lords of Toron were one of the original crusader families and were supporters of the barons' faction&sup8;, as opposed to the new crusader princes who tended to come from Europe to marry into the royal family&sup9;. Humphrey IV became lord of Toron when Humphrey II died in 1179.¹0;
Humphrey IV, as a member of an old family, was therefore an anomaly in the royal family¹0;; in 1180 he became betrothed to Isabella of Jerusalem¹1;, daughter of former king Amalric I, under the agreement that Toron would become a royal territory¹2;. In November of 1183 Humphrey and the eleven-year old Isabella were married in the fortress of Kerak¹0;, which was at the same time besieged by Saladin¹3;. Humphrey's mother convinced Saladin not to direct his attack against the tower in which the marriage was taking place¹0;, although he continued to besiege the rest of the fortress; Kerak was eventually relieved by king Baldwin IV¹4;.
In 1186, when Baldwin V died, Raynald tried to convince him to claim the throne through Isabella¹5;. However, Humphrey, not known to be ambitious or confrontational, instead chose to support Guy of Lusignan¹6;, husband of Isabella's sister Sibylla, and Raynald and the other nobles followed his support, even though Guy was a newcomer¹7;.
Guy proved to be an ineffective king¹8;, and Saladin invaded the kingdom in 1187¹8;. Humphrey was captured at the Battle of Hattin that year¹9;, but was let go and returned to Kerak to prepare for its defense²0;. He was captured again when Kerak fell in 1189, but was again set free.²1;
The barons of Jerusalem had only begrudgingly accepted Guy as king because of Humphrey's influence²2;, and after the fall of Jerusalem they turned against him²3;. During the Third Crusade in 1190²4; the Patriarch annulled Humphrey's marriage to Isabella²5;, based on the newcomer Conrad of Montferrat's argument that she had married Humphrey while underage²6;. Humphrey and Isabella were a devoted couple and did not want to divorce²7;, but Humphrey did not want to cause any conflict with the other barons²8;. Humphrey was also intimidated into the divorce by Guy of Senlis, a French noble, who challenged him to combat (Humphrey refused)²9;. Conrad then married Isabella himself³0; (although he was already married)³1;, and claimed the throne of Jerusalem through her³2;, with the support of the other barons³3;, especially the powerful Ibelin family³4;.
Humphrey allied himself with Richard Lionheart³5;, first in the capture of Cyprus and then against Saladin³6;. As Humphrey was fluent in Arabic he was able to negotiate with Saladin on Richard's behalf³6;. In 1192, when Conrad was assassinated by the Hashshashin³7;, Humphrey, along with Richard and various others, were suspected to be involved, although this is unlikely³8;. Isabella was then married off to Henry II of Champagne³9;, over the protests of Humphrey, who argued that the annulment of their marriage was invalid due to Conrad's bigamy³9;.
Humphrey probably died soon after this.&sup40;
- 1 "Humphrey IV of Toron (c. 1166- c. 1192)"
- 2 "was the lord of Toron"
- 3 "Kerak"
- 4 "Oultrejordain"
- 5 "in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem"
- 6 "He was the son of Humphrey III of Toron and Stephanie of Milly"
- 7 "Humphrey's sister Isabella was married to Rupen III of Armenia"
- 8 "The lords of Toron were one of the original crusader families and were supporters of the barons' faction"
- 9 "as opposed to the new crusader princes who tended to come from Europe to marry into the royal family"
- 10 "Humphrey IV became lord of Toron when Humphrey II died in 1179"
- 10a "Humphrey IV, as a member of an old family, was therefore an anomaly in the royal family"
- 11 "in 1180 he became betrothed to Isabella of Jerusalem"
- 12 "under the agreement that Toron would become a royal territory"
- 13 "In November of 1183 Humphrey and the eleven-year old Isabella were married in the fortress of Kerak"